Bureaucracy Is The Executive Branch Of The Government

Bureaucracy Is The Executive Branch Of The Government, Where Agencies And Offices Are The Ones Who Subordinates To Carrying And Put The Task Of The Government Consistent With The Law

A bureaucracy is a complex structure of offices, rules, tasks, and principles of organization appliedby large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel. Fukuyama (2013) identifies theproblems of the poor empirical measures of the quality of states that point to the executive branches ofthese institutions and their bureaucracies. The conflicts are conceptual as there are very fewagreements on what constitutes a high-quality government. In his commentary, he suggests fourapproaches; procedural measures, such as the Weberian criteria of bureaucratic modernity, capacitymeasures, which include both resources and degree of professionalization, output measures, andmeasures of bureaucratic autonomy. There are two-dimensional frameworks used to measure quality.Capacity, and control.

Many aspects of modern bureaucracies and public administration go back to Max Weber (1864-1920). Marx developed a critical analysis of capitalism that saw the material or economic basis ofinequality and power relations as the cause of social instability and conflict. Webers’ focus turned onthe question of individual autonomy and freedom in an increasingly rationalized society as thereplacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behaviors. Overriding conceptsbased on rationality and reason. An ideal bureaucracy is a hierarchical organization with delineatedlines of authority in a fixed area of activity. Actions taken are based on and recorded in formulatedrules by bureaucratic officials and administrators with expert training rules and policies implementedby neutral officials. Career advancement in bureaucracies will depend on technical qualificationsjudged by an organization, not individuals.

While bureaucracies seem opposed due to the idea of being trapped in an iron cage (Max Weber,1864-1920), they are rule-based and rationally controlled. However, they are identified as the mostefficient forms of organizations through implementing laws, making and enforcing their own rules,and settling disputes through administrative adjudication. The modern nation-state emerged during astage related to the relationship between church and state (Argyle, 1994; 1-17). The feudal conceptionof a universal Christian brotherhood of men was under the guidance of a universal Christian church.These changed through the scripture that instructs obedience to the state. “Let every soul is subject tohigher powers. There is no power but of God: the powers are from God. Whosoever resisteth thepower, resisteth the ordinance of God. For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are ministers of3God, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues: a tribute to whomtribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.” (Romans 13:1-7)

John G. et al. (2016) argue that in America today, the government is bureaucratically perceived asa tool against things getting done, earning it annoying and daunting characteristics. Bureaucrats arefaceless puppets enforcing the rules, whereas these administrators are an extension of the presidency.Therefore, bureaucratic implementation is how the president executes the law. The state rules must beenforced equally across citizens as this organization is essential to modern governments. To furthertheir point of view, John G. et al. (2016) conclude that the federal bureaucracy will be inefficienttoday because of its vast responsibilities. The responsibilities born are not only towards implementingcrucial policies and laws but making sure that it’s procedural in the sense that it’s orderly, fair,predictable, and equal to all citizens. The federal government is composed of the legislature concernedwith formulating the rules and policies, the executive vested in the president acting as head of state toimplement and enforce laws, and the Judiciary. Its powers are upon the constitution, president, andfederal courts.

Hundreds of federal agencies and commissions manage and protect, gather intelligence, andadvance the welfare of the people. Nations require complex structures at the executive level to overseegovernment activities through vesting in many employees to carry out government duties (John G. etal. 2016). These many responsibilities are passed by the legislature and signed by the president.Consequently, the state requires experts. The legislature has to depend on specialists who are thebureaucrats to draft these regulations that implement the law. According to statistics, the number offederal employees was close to 4.2 million people in 2014 (White house, n.d). Departments of thefederal government, therefore, vary widely depending on their responsibility to carry out and put thetask of the government consistent with the law. The president builds a cabinet who are the keyadvisors responsible for all areas under his jurisdiction. This is the executive branch of thebureaucracy, the executive departments.

A cabinet is an executive branch led by cabinet secretaries appointed by the president. As John G.et al. (2016) comments, these executive departments are responsible for implementing laws andpolicies in specific areas of governance through regulation and the enforcement process, detailing how4policies are implemented, and what’s needed to comply with the law. The American federalbureaucracy has fifteen executive departments which oversee implementation, provide advice to thepresident on issues under the departments, and develop an annual budget for the departments.

John G.et al. (2016) note that they are under the supervision of the president. These departments range from,ministry of justice, the department of health & human services, the department of treasury, and thedepartment of agriculture, department foreign affairs, and transport. These bureaucracies provideservices through sub-agencies created under them.John G. et al. (2016) identify that these subdivisions are hierarchical to maximize efficiency. It isworth noting that these bureaucracies are political entities and subject to political pressure despiteefforts to separate them from politics. They are huge and do a lot by creating political constituenciesby making themselves useful to people. Since most of them serve clients, some agencies will regulateand maintain the union by collecting revenue to run the state as in the case of internal revenue service(IRS). It also administers the internal revenues code through federal statutory tax laws. It regulateseconomic activities by enforcing regulations through the occupational safety and health administration(OSHA). IRS is under the ministry of labor having powers to inspect and examine healthy workconditions by providing training, education, and outreach, under the act signed into law on December29, 1970, by President Richard M. Nixon. According to John G. et al. (2016), the creation of theDepartment of Health and Human Services (HHS) was to oversee medical, Medicare, and otherrelated federal health-related programs. It is responsible for implementing new programs associatedwith legislation to protect the health of all Americans and provide essential human services.

Bureaucracy is the most executive branch in government that oversees responsibilities andimplements them through sub-agencies that are also bureaucratic. According to John G. et al. (2016),there exist other independent bureaucracies forming the federal government commissions,administrations, boards, corporations, and endowments. They vary by structure, and mission,including their degree of independence from the president. For example, the office of managementand Budget (OMB) has the final command over the entire federal budget through approval beforebeing included in the proposed national budget.

These federal department source of power is varied as it arises from congress and the expertise ofthe bureaucracies themselves. Gaining critic, and control of these departments is key to efficiency.They can be limited through before-the-fact or after-the-fact control, seeking to shrink their size andnumber, opting for termination, deregulation, and devolution. According to John G. et al. (2016), following a consistent regulatory process, these agencies draft regulations open to comment bycitizens, members of Congress, interest groups, and relevant industries before being finalized. Reformefforts have been improving its transparency by protecting whistle-blowers. These regulationsexemplify the federal government responsiveness and accountability to its citizens despite concerns ofcompeting interests.

In conclusion, A Bureaucracy Is the Executive branch of the Government, Where agencies andoffices are the ones who are subordinates to carrying and putting the task of the governmentconsistent with the law. Each bureaucratic organization has a clear mission, a hierarchical decision-making process, an area of expertise, and a bureaucratic culture. The responsibilities born are not onlytowards implementing crucial policies and laws but making sure that it is procedural in the sense thatit is orderly, fair, predictable, and equal to all citizens. They are identified as the most efficient formsof organizations through implementing laws, making and enforcing their own rules, and settlingdisputes through administrative adjudication.


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Fukuyama F. (2013).Wiley online library: Governance. What is Governance?

Geer G. J., Schiller J. W., Segal A. J. & Herrera R. (2016). Gateway to Democracy: AnIntroduction to American Government. (Ch.14)

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2017). Max Weber. In Stanford encyclopedia ofphilosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber/

The White House (n.d). https://www.whitehouse.gov/